Modern Indian History (1707-1947)

by Dhrubajyoti Haloi

The Later Mughal period in Indian history (1707-1857) witnessed the decline of the Mughal Empire and the rise of regional powers. This era saw a series of weak Mughal rulers who were unable to maintain control over their empire, leading to the emergence of several independent states and the onset of European colonialism in India.

During this period, India was ruled by several Mughal emperors such as Muhammad Shah, Ahmad Shah Bahadur, and Shah Alam II, among others. The Mughal Empire was beset by a host of internal problems, including the rise of powerful regional rulers, the breakdown of the imperial administrative system, and the decline of the Mughal army.

The Indian National Movement emerged in the late 19th and early 20th century as a response to British colonial rule in India. Leaders such as Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, and Subhash Chandra Bose played a crucial role in the Indian struggle for independence.

The Indian National Congress was formed in 1885 and became the leading organization for the Indian National Movement. The movement had various phases, including the Non-Cooperation Movement, the Civil Disobedience Movement, and the Quit India Movement.

The Indian National Movement succeeded in securing India’s independence in 1947, after a long and arduous struggle against British colonial rule. The movement was marked by several key events, including the Salt Satyagraha, the Dandi March, and the Quit India Movement.

Overall, the Later Mughal period and the Indian National Movement were two distinct but interconnected phases in Indian history that had a profound impact on the country’s political and social landscape.

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